Passive Voice I

21 12 2012

The passive voice is a grammatical construction (specifically, a “voice”) in which the subject of a sentence or clause denotes the recipient of the action (the patient) rather than the performer (the agent). The passive voice in English is formed periphrastically, with an auxiliary verb (usually be or get) plus a participle (usually the past participle) of a verb, usually a transitive verb.

For example, Caesar was stabbed by Brutus uses the passive voice. The subject denotes the person (Caesar) affected by the action of the verb. The counterpart to this inactive voice is Brutus stabbed Caesar, in which the subject denotes the doer, or agent, Brutus. A sentence featuring the passive voice is sometimes called a passive sentence, and a verb phrase in passive voice is sometimes called a passive verb.

English allows a number of passive constructions which are not possible in many of the other languages with similar passive formation. These include promotion of anindirect object to subject (as in Tom was given a bag) and promotion of the complement of a preposition (as in Sue was operated on, leaving a stranded preposition).

Use of the English passive varies with writing style and field. Some publications’ style sheets discourage use of the passive voice, while others encourage it. Although some purveyors of usage advice, including George Orwell (see Politics and the English Language, 1946) and William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White (see The Elements of Style, 1919) discourage the English passive, its usefulness is generally recognized, particularly in cases where the patient is more important than the agent,[5] but also in some cases where it is desired to emphasize the agent.

The passive voice is a specific grammatical construction; not every expression that serves to take focus away from the performer of an action is classified as an instance of passive voice. The essential components of the English passive voice are a form of the auxiliary verb be (or sometimes get), and the past participle of the main verb denoting the action. For example:

We have been cruelly deceived.
The captain was struck by a missile.
got kicked in the face during the fight.

(For exceptions, see Additional passive constructions below.) The agent (the doer of the action) may be specified, using a prepositional phrase with the preposition by, as in the third example, but it is equally possible to omit this, as is done in the other examples.

A distinction is made between the above type of clause, and those of similar form in which the past participle is used as an ordinary adjective, and the verb be or similar is simply a copula linking the subject of the sentence to that adjective. For example:

I am excited (right now).

This would not normally be classed as a passive sentence, since the participle excited is used adjectivally to denote a state, not to denote an action of excitation (as it would in the passive the electron was excited with a laser pulse). See Stative and adjectival uses below.

Sentences which do not follow the pattern described above are not considered to be in the passive voice, even if they have a similar function of avoiding or marginalizing reference to the agent. An example is the sentence A stabbing occurred, where mention of the stabber is avoided, but the sentence is nonetheless cast in the active voice, with the verbal noun stabbing forming the subject of the simple past tense of the verb occur. (Similarly There was a stabbing.) Occasionally, however, writers misapply the term “passive voice” to sentences of this type.  An example of this loose usage can be found in the following extract from an article from The New Yorker about Bernard Madoff (bolding and italics added; bold text indicates the verbs misidentified as passive voice):

Two sentences later, Madoff said, “When I began the Ponzi scheme, I believed it would end shortly, and I would be able to extricate myself, and my clients, from the scheme.” As he read this, he betrayed no sense of how absurd it was to use the passive voice in regard to his scheme, as if it were a spell of bad weather that had descended on him . . . In most of the rest of the statement, one not only heard the aggrieved passive voice, but felt the hand of a lawyer: “To the best of my recollection, my fraud began in the early nineteen-nineties.”

The intransitive verbs would end and began are in fact in the active voice. Although the speaker uses the words in a manner that subtly diverts responsibility from him, this is not accomplished by use of passive voice.

Examples of misuse of the term are also found in Strunk and White’s influential The Elements of Style. Professor Geoffrey Pullum notes that three out of four “passive voice” examples given in that book do not in fact contain passives: “There were a great number of dead leaves lying on the ground” (no sign of any passive); “It was not long before she was very sorry that she had said what she had” (again, no sign of the passive); “The reason that he left college was that his health became impaired” (here became impaired is an example of the adjectival, not passive, use of the past participle).

The passive voice can be used without referring to the agent of an action; it may therefore be used when the agent is unknown or unimportant, or the speaker does not wish to mention the agent.

  • Three stores were robbed last night. (the identity of the agent may be unknown)
  • A new cancer drug has been discovered. (the identity of the agent may be unimportant in the context)
  • Mistakes have been made on this project. (the speaker may not wish to identify the agent)

The last sentence illustrates a frequently criticized use of the passive – the evasion of responsibility by failure to mention the agent (which may even be the speaker himself).

Agentless passives are common in scientific writing, where the agent may be irrelevant:

  • The mixture was heated to 300°C.

However the passive voice can also be used together with a mention of the agent, using a by-phrase. In this case the reason for use of the passive is often connected with the positioning of this phrase at the end of the clause (unlike in the active voice, where the agent, as subject, normally precedes the verb). Here, in contrast to the examples above, passive constructions may in fact serve to place emphasis on the agent, since it is natural for information being emphasized to come at the end:

  • Don’t you see? The patient was murdered by his own doctor!

In more technical terms, such uses can be expected in sentences where the agent is the focus (commentrheme), while the patient (the undergoer of the action) is the topic or theme (see Topic–comment). There is a tendency for sentences to be formulated so as to place the focus at the end, and this can motivate the choice of active or passive voice:

  • My taxi hit an old lady. (the taxi is the topic, the lady is the focus)
  • My mother was hit by a taxi. (the mother is the topic, the taxi is the focus)

Similarly, the passive may be used because the noun phrase denoting the agent is a long one (containing many modifiers), since it is convenient to place such phrases at the end of a clause:

  • The breakthrough was achieved by Burlingame and Evans, two researchers in the university’s genetic engineering lab.

Many language critics and language-usage manuals discourage use of the passive voice. This advice is not usually found in older guides, emerging only in the first half of the twentieth century. In 1916, the British writer Arthur Quiller-Couch, criticized this grammatical voice:

Generally, use transitive verbs, that strike their object; and use them in the active voice, eschewing the stationary passive, with its little auxiliary its’s and was’s, and its participles getting into the light of your adjectives, which should be few. For, as a rough law, by his use of the straight verb and by his economy of adjectives you can tell a man’s style, if it be masculine or neuter, writing or ‘composition’.

Two years later, in 1918, in The Elements of Style Cornell University Professor of English William Strunk, Jr. warned against excessive use of the passive voice:

The active voice is usually more direct and vigorous than the passive . . . This rule does not, of course, mean that the writer should entirely discard the passive voice, which is frequently convenient and sometimes necessary . . . The need to make a particular word the subject of the sentence will often . . . determine which voice is to be used. The habitual use of the active voice, however, makes for forcible writing. This is true not only in narrative concerned principally with action, but in writing of any kind. Many a tame sentence of description or exposition can be made lively and emphatic by substituting a transitive in the active voice for some such perfunctory expression as there is or could be heard.

In 1926, in the authoritative A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (1926), Henry W. Fowler recommended against transforming active voice forms into passive voice forms, because doing so “…sometimes leads to bad grammar, false idiom, or clumsiness.”

In 1946, in the essay Politics and the English Language (1946), George Orwell recommended the active voice as an elementary principle of composition: “Never use the passive where you can use the active.”

The Columbia Guide to Standard American English (1993) stated that:

Active voice makes subjects do something (to something); passive voice permits subjects to have something done to them (by someone or something). Some argue that active voice is more muscular, direct, and succinct, passive voice flabbier, more indirect, and wordier. If you want your words to seem impersonal, indirect, and noncommittal, passive is the choice, but otherwise, active voice is almost invariably likely to prove more effective.

Krista Ratcliffe, a professor at Marquette University, notes the use of passives as an example of the role of grammar as “…a link between words and magical conjuring […]: passive voice mystifies accountability by erasing who or what performs an action […].”

Jan Freeman, a reporter for The Boston Globe, said that the passive voice does have its uses, and that “all good writers use the passive voice.” For example, despite Orwell’s advice to avoid the passive, his Politics and the English Language (1946) employs passive voice for about 20 percent of its constructions. By comparison, a statistical study found about 13 percent passive constructions in newspapers and magazines.

Passive writing is not necessarily slack and indirect. Many famously vigorous passages use the passive voice, as in these examples:

  • Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low; and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain. (King James Bible, Isaiah 40:4)
  • Now is the winter of our discontent / Made glorious summer by this sun of York. (Shakespeare’s Richard III, I.1, ll. 1–2)
  • For of those to whom much is given, much is required. (John F. Kennedy’s quotation of Luke 12:48 in his address to the Massachusetts legislature, 9 January 1961.)
  • Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few. (Winston Churchill addressing the House of Commons, 20 August 1940.)

Merriam–Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage (1994) recommends the passive voice when identifying the object (receiver) of the action is more important than the subject (agent), and when the agent is unknown, unimportant, or not worth mentioning:

  • The child was struck by the car.
  • The store was robbed last night.
  • Plows should not be kept in the garage.
  • Kennedy was elected president.

The principal criticism against the passive voice is its potential for evasion of responsibility. This is because a passive clause may omit the agent even where it is important:

  • We had hoped to report on this problem, but the data were inadvertently deleted from our files.

(See weasel words.) However, the passive can also be used to emphasize the agent, and it may be better for that role than the active voice, because the end of a clause is the ideal place to put something you wish to emphasize, or a long noun phrase, as in the examples given in the previous section:

  • Don’t you see? The patient was murdered by his own doctor!
  • The breakthrough was achieved by Burlingame and Evans, two researchers in the university’s genetic engineering lab.

Geoffrey Pullum writes that “The passive is not an undesirable feature limited to bad writing, it’s a useful construction often needed for clear expression, and every good writer uses it.”

In the most commonly considered type of passive clause, a form of the verb be (or sometimes get) is used as an auxiliary together with the past participle of a transitive verb; that verb is missing itsdirect object, and the patient of the action (that which would be denoted by the direct object of the verb in an active clause) is denoted instead by the subject of the clause. For example, the active clause:

  • John threw the ball.

contains threw as a transitive verb with John as its subject and the ball as its direct object. If we recast the verb in the passive voice (was thrown), then the ball becomes the subject (it is “promoted” to the subject position) and John disappears:

  • The ball was thrown.

The original subject (the agent) can optionally be re-inserted using the preposition by.

  • The ball was thrown by John.

The above example uses the verb be (in the past tense form was) to make the passive. It is often possible to use the verb get as an alternative (possibly with slightly different meaning); for example, the active sentence “The ball hit Bob” may be recast in either of the following forms:

  • Bob was hit by the ball.
  • Bob got hit by the ball.

The auxiliary verb of the passive voice (be or get) may appear in any combination of tense, aspect and mood, and can also appear in non-finite form (infinitive, participle or gerund). See the article onEnglish verb forms for more information. Notice that this includes use of the verb be in progressive aspect, which does not normally occur when be is used as a simple copula. Some examples:

  • The food is being served. (present progressive passive)
  • The stadium will have been built by next January. (future perfect passive)
  • would have got injured if I had stayed in my place. (conditional perfect passive with get)
  • It isn’t nice to be insulted. (passive infinitive)
  • Having been humiliated, he left the stage. (passive present participle, perfect aspect)

Unlike some other languages, English also allows passive clauses in which an indirect object, rather than a direct object, is promoted to the subject. For example:

  • John gave Mary a book. → Mary was given a book (by John).

In the active form, gave is the verb; John is its subject, Mary its indirect object, and a book its direct object. In the passive forms, the indirect object has been promoted and the direct object has been left in place. (In this respect, English resembles dechticaetiative languages.)

It is normally only the first-appearing object that can be promoted; promotion of the indirect object takes place from a construction in which it precedes the direct object (i.e. where there is no to or forbefore the indirect object), whereas promotion of the direct object in such cases takes place from a construction in which the indirect object follows the direct (this time being accompanied by to or for; see English grammar: Verb phrases). For example:

  • John gave Mary a book. → Mary was given a book. (and not normally: ??A book was given Mary.)
  • John gave a book to Mary. → A book was given to Mary. (and not: *Mary was given a book to.)

Similar restrictions apply to the prepositional passive, as noted in the following section.

It is also possible, in some cases, to promote the object of a preposition. This may be called the prepositional passive, or sometimes the pseudo-passive (although the latter term can also have other meanings, particularly in descriptions of other languages).

  • They talked about the problem. → The problem was talked about.

In the passive form here, the preposition is “stranded“; that is, it is not followed by an object.

The prepositional passive is common especially in informal English. However some potential uses appear grammatically unacceptable; compare the following examples given by Pullum:

  • Someone has slept in this bunk. → This bunk has been slept in. (fully acceptable)
  • Someone has slept above this bunk. → ??This bunk has been slept above. (barely acceptable)

The second sentence appears unacceptable because sleeping above a bunk does not change its state; the verb phrase been slept above does not express a “relevantly important property” of the bunk.

It is not possible to promote a prepositional object if the verb also has a direct object. For example:

  • Someone has put a child in this bunk. → *This bunk has been put a child in. (unacceptable)

A type of clause that is similar or identical in form to the passive clauses described above has the past participle used to denote not an action, but a state being the result of an action. For example, the sentence The window was broken may have two different meanings:

  • The window was broken, i.e Someone or something broke the window. (action, event)
  • The window was broken, i.e. The window was not intact. (resultant state)

The first sentence is an example of the canonical English passive as described above. However the second case is distinct; such sentences are not always considered to be true passives, since the participle is being used adjectivally;[12] they are sometimes called false passives. If they are considered to be passives, they may be called stative (or static, or resultative) passives, since they represent a state or result. By contrast the canonical passives, representing an action or event, may then be called dynamic or eventive passives.

The ambiguity in such sentences arises because the verb be is used in English both as the passive auxiliary and as the ordinary copular verb for linking to predicate adjectives. When get is used to form the passive, there is no ambiguity: The window got broken cannot have a stative meaning. (For ways in which some other languages make this distinction, see Passive voice: Stative and dynamic passive.) If a distinct adjective exists for the purpose of expressing the state, then the past participle is less likely to be used for that purpose; this is the case with the verb open, for which there exists an adjective open, so the sentence The door was opened more likely refers to the action rather than the state, since in the stative case one could simply say The door was open.

Past participles of transitive verbs can also be used as adjectives (as in broken doll), and the participles used in the above-mentioned “stative” constructions are often considered to be adjectival (inpredicative use). Such constructions may then also be called adjectival passives (although they are not normally considered true passives). For example:

  • She was relieved to find her car.

Here, relieved is an ordinary adjective, though it derives from the past participle of relieve.[22] In other sentences that same participle may be used to form the true (dynamic) passive: He was relieved of duty.

When the verb being put into the passive voice is a stative verb anyway, the distinctions between uses of the past participle become less clear, since the canonical passive already has a stative meaning. (For example: People know his identity → His identity is known.) However it is sometimes possible to impart a dynamic meaning using get as the auxiliary, as in get known with the meaning “become known”.

Some passive constructions are not derived exactly from a corresponding active construction in the ways described above. This is particularly the case with sentences containing content clauses(usually that-clauses). Given a sentence in which the role of direct object is played by such a clause, for example

  • They say (that) he cheats.

it is possible to convert this to a passive by promoting the content clause to subject; in this case, however, the clause typically does not change its position in the sentence, and an expletive it takes the normal subject position:

  • It is said that he cheats.

Another way of forming passives in such cases involves promoting the subject of the content clause to the subject of the main clause, and converting the content clause into a non-finite clause with theto-infinitive. This infinitive is marked for grammatical aspect to correspond to the aspect (or past tense) expressed in the content clause. For example:

  • They say that he cheats. → He is said to cheat.
  • They think that I am dying. → I am thought to be dying.
  • They report that she came back / has come back. → She is reported to have come back.
  • They say that she will resign. → e.g. She is said to be going to resign.

Some verbs are used almost exclusively in the passive voice. This is the case with rumor, for example. The following passive sentences are possible:

  • He was rumored to be a war veteran. / It was rumored that he was a war veteran.

but it is not possible to use the active counterpart *They rumored that he was a war veteran. (This was once possible, but has fallen out of use.)

Another situation in which the passive uses a different constuction than the active involves the verb make, meaning “compel”. When this verb is used in the active voice it takes the bare infinitive (without the particle to), but in the passive voice it takes the to-infinitive. For example:

  • They made Jane attend classes.
  • Jane was made to attend classes.

The construction called double passive can arise when one verb appears in the to-infinitive as the complement of another verb.

If the first verb takes a direct object ahead of the infinitive complement (this applies to raising-to-object verbs, where the expected subject of the second verb is raised to the position of object of the first verb), then the passive voice may be used independently for either or both of the verbs:

  • We expect you to complete the project. (you is raised from subject of complete to object of expect)
  • You are expected to complete the project. (passive voice used for expect)
  • We expect the project to be completed. (passive voice used for complete; now the project is raised to object)
  • The project is expected to be completed. (double passive)

Other verbs which can behave similarly to expect in such constructions include ordertellpersuade, etc., leading to such double passives as The man was ordered to be shot and I was persuaded to be ordained.

Similar constructions sometimes occur, however, when the first verb is raising-to-subject rather than raising-to-object – that is, when there is no object before the infinitive complement. For example, with attempt, the active voice construction is simply We attempted to complete the project. A double passive formed from that sentence would be:

  • The project was attempted to be completed.

with both verbs changed simultaneously to the passive voice, even though the first verb takes no object – it is not possible to say *We attempted the project to be completed, which is the sentence from which the double passive would appear to derive.

This latter double passive construction is criticized as questionable both grammatically and stylistically. Fowler calls it “clumsy and incorrect”, suggesting that it springs from false analogy with the former (acceptable) type of double passive, though conceding its usefulness in some legal and quasi-legal language. Other verbs mentioned (besides attempt) with which the construction is found include begindesirehopeproposeseek and threaten. Similarly, The American Heritage Book of English Usage declares this construction unacceptable. It nonetheless occurs in practice in a variety of contexts.

Certain other constructions are sometimes classed as passives. The following types are mentioned by Pullum.

bare passive clause is similar to a typical passive clause, but without the passive auxiliary verb (so it is a non-finite clause consisting of a subject together with a verb phrase based on a past participle with the passive construction). These can be used in such contexts as newspaper headlines:

  • City hall damaged by hail

and as modifiers (adverbial phrases):

  • Our work done, we made our way back home.
  • That said, there are also other considerations.

Other constructions are mentioned in which a passive past participial clause is used, even though it is not introduced by the auxiliary be or get (or is introduced by get with a direct object):

  • I had my car cleaned by a professional.
  • Jane had her car stolen last week.
  • You ought to get that lump looked at.
  • This software comes pre-installed by the manufacturer.

In the concealed passive, the present participle or gerund form (-ing form) appears rather than the past participle. This can appear after need, and for some speakers after want (with similar meaning). For example:

  • Your car needs washing. (meaning “needs to be washed”; some speakers might say needs washed)
  • That rash needs looking at by a specialist.
  • His hair wants cutting.

The verbs need and want also have similar uses with an object:

  • I need/want my room painting.

See also English clause syntax: Non-finite clauses.

The term middle voice is sometimes used to refer to verbs used without a passive construction, but in a meaning where the grammatical subject is understood as undergoing the action. The meaning may be reflexive:

  • Fred shaved, i.e. Fred shaved himself

but is not always:

  • These cakes sell well, i.e. [we] sell these cakes [successfully]
  • The clothes are soaking, i.e. [the water] is soaking the clothes

Only certain verbs can be used with such meanings. However a more general construction, formerly used in English, was the passival, where the progressive aspect of a verb was used in the active voice, but with passive meaning. Examples of this would be:

  • The house is building (modern English: The house is being built)
  • The meal is eating (modern English: The meal is being eaten)

The passival was displaced in the early 19th century by the passive progressive (the form is being built as given above). It is suggested that the passive progressive was popularized by the Romantic poets, and is connected with Bristol usage. Only certain verbs can be used with passival-type sentences in modern English, such as the verb soak in the example given above.




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